In 1949, the UN entrusted Italy with a fiduciary mandate to guarantee the independence process of Somalia which was achieved on July 1st, 1960. In 1967 Abdar Rasir Ali Shemarke was elected President, later killed in the 1969 coup that brought Siad Barre to power. Only in 1991, the anti-government movements overthrew Siad Barre but the coalition failed to govern and fell apart, plunging the country into civil war and humanitarian emergency. Attempts at international mediation failed and peoples like Farah Hasan Aidid and Ali' Madi prevailed even more.
Between April 24th 1992 and March 26th 1993, with the resolution C.S. UN no. 751 the sending of the multinational force UNOSOM 1 - United Nations Operation in Somalia nr. 1 was authorized. The mandate was to supervise the ceasefire, the escort to the convoys and the promotion of reconciliation and humanitarian interventions. The contingent (16 nations) deployed 50 military observers, 3,500 security personnel, 719 logistical support personnel, 200 civilian staff. The work carried out by UNOSOM 1, however, appeared unsatisfactory and from December 3rd 1992 its action was added that of UNITAF. UNOSOM 1 remained responsible for the political supervision of the mission and the coordination of humanitarian assistance.
The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) was operational between December 3rd 1992 and May 4th 1993. Established with resolution C.S. UN no. 794 and placed under US command, UNITAF was authorized to employ all means necessary to ensure the distribution of aid and the conduct of humanitarian operations. 25 nations joined and UNITAF deployed a force of between 25,000 and 37,000 men. Italy deployed ITALFOR, a contingent of 2,600 soldiers. Articulated as Combined Joint Task Force, the UNITAF action took the name of Restore Hope and began on December 9th 1992. UNITAF and UNOSOM 1 carried out relief activities for the population and disarmament of the militias. The UN resolution n. 814 approved a more organic intervention that put an end to UNOSOM 1 and UNITAF and started UNOSOM 2.
With the resolution C.S. UN no. 814 (March 26th, 1993) UNOSOM 2 began. The peacekeeping force (33 nations, including Italy) deployed 28,000 military and 2,800 civilian staff members. The contingent pursued all necessary actions to ensure the delivery of humanitarian assistance and to restore peace, order and stability. In May between 1st and 4th, the transition between UNITAF and UNOSOM 2 and the transfer of authority took place. Following the fighting of June-July 1993, the action of UNOSOM 2 from peace-support was directed towards peace-enforcing. In the following months, numerous UN resolutions followed up to n. 954 (November 4, 1994) which, recognizing the failure of the UN mission due to the lack of cooperation of the Somali factions, indicated March 31st, 1995 as the end of the operation.